Whatever you do don"t gargle fluoroantimonic acid, the strongest acid in the world

     
Fluoroantimonic acid Identifiers Properties
IUPAC name Fluoroantimonic acid
CAS number 16950-06-4
Molecular formula HSbF6
Molar mass 236.808 g/mole
Appearance colourless syrup
Density g cm–3
Melting point

°C at mmHg

Boiling point

decomposes

Fluoroantimonic acid HSbF6 is a mixture of hydrogen fluoride và antimony pentafluoride in various ratios.

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<1> The 1:1 combination affords the strongest known superacid, which has been demonstrated to lớn protonate even hydrocarbons khổng lồ afford carbocations và H2.

The reaction of hydrogen fluoride (HF) & SbF5 is exothermic. HF releases its proton (H+), và its conjugate base (F−) is sequestered by one of more molecules SbF5 to give the octahedral SbF6−. This anion is classified as noncoordinating, because it is both a very weak nucleophile & a very weak base. The proton effectively becomes "naked", which accounts for the system"s extreme acidity. Fluoroantimonic acid is 2×1019 times stronger than 100% sulfuric acid. The reaction of hydrofluoric acid và antimony pentafluoride proceeds as follows


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1 Structure

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Structure

Two related products have been crystallised from HF-SbF5 mixtures, & both have been analyzed by single crystal X-ray crystallography. These salts have the formulas & . In both salts the anion is Sb2F11−.<2> As mentioned above, SbF6− is classified as weakly basic; the larger monoanion Sb2F11− would be expected khổng lồ be still weaker.

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Comparison with other acids

The following values are based upon the Hammett acidity function. Acidity is indicated by large negative values of H0.

Fluoroantimonic acid (1990) (H0 Value = −31.3) Magic acid (1974) (H0 Value = −19.2) Carborane superacid (1969) (H0 Value = −18.0)

Applications


Main article: Superacid#Applications

This extraordinarily strong acid protonates nearly all organic compounds. In 1967, Bickel và Hogeveen showed that HF-SbF5 will remove H2 from isobutane và methane from neopentane:<3><4>

(CH3)3CH + H+ → (CH3)3C+ + H2(CH3)4C + H+ → (CH3)3C+ + CH4

Safety

HF-SbF5 is rapidly and explosively decomposed by water. It reacts with virtually all known solvents.<1> A solvent that has proven compatible with HF-SbF5 is SO2ClF. Chlorofluorocarbons have also been used as solvents. Containers forHF-SbF5 are made of Teflon.

References


Categories: Antimony compounds | Fluorides | Inorganic compounds | Superacids


This article is licensed under the GNU không lấy phí Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Fluoroantimonic_acid". A menu of authors is available in Wikipedia.

Chuyên mục: Tin Tức